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This may involve long decay chains, with each daughter product decaying into other daughter substances, until finally only an inert element remains that has no radioactivity.

In some instances, the parent substance may decay directly into the end product.

According to *Van Allen, high-altitude tests revealed that it emits 3000-4000 times as much radiation as the cosmic rays that continually bombard the earth. But we know next to nothing about this belt—what it is, why it is there, or whether it has changed in the past. Even small amounts of variation or change in the Van Allen belt would significantly affect radioactive substances.

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It is based on the formation of radioactive elements of carbon, in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation, and their subsequent decay to the stable carbon isotope.

We will also discuss radiocarbon dating in this chapter. Ideally, in order to do this, each specimen tested needs to have been sealed in a jar with thick lead walls for all its previous existence, supposedly millions of years!

For example, all the uranium 238 in the world originally had no lead 206 in it, and no lead 206 existed anywhere else.

But if either Creation—or a major worldwide catastrophe (such as the Flood) occurred, everything would begin thereafter with, what scientists call, an "appearance of age." By this we mean "appearance of maturity." The world would be seen as mature the moment after Creation.

Field evidence reveals that decay rates have indeed varied in the past. Cosmic rays, high-energy mesons, neutrons, electrons, protons, and photons enter our atmosphere continually.

"His [Joly’s] suggestion of varying rate of disintegration of uranium at various geological periods would, if correct, set aside all possibilities of age calculation by radioactive methods."—*A. Kovarik, "Calculating the Age of Minerals from Radioactivity Data and Principles," in Bulletin 80 of the National Research Council, June 1931, p. These are atomic particles traveling at speeds close to that of the speed of light.

Some of these rays go several hundred feet underground and 1400 meters [1530 yards] into the ocean depths.

The blanket of air covering our world is equivalent to 34 feet [104 dm] of water, or 1 meter [1.093 yd] thickness of lead.

Spread before us would be a scene of fully grown plants and flowers. We would not, instead, see a barren landscape of seeds littering the ground.

We would see full-grown chickens, not unhatched eggs.

Sometimes, the radioactive chain may begin with an element partway down the decay chain.

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