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It is necessary to find reaction conditions tolerant of transient excursions in temperature, pressure, or concentration of chemicals and to use safe solvents when ex- tracting reaction products during purification steps.

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More than 300 million tons of hazardous waste are generated annually by about 14,000 installations in the United States.

About 14.7 billion gallons of hazardous waste is disposed of in or on the land each year, FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING /'/"/ ~ ;~ \"` ·5.

~ ~ In 1980, Congress appropriated $1.6 billion for a 5-year Superfund program.

The original Superfund legislation viewed cleanup of haz- ardous waste sites as a relatively short-term program and anticipated that waste could be contained for several decades by methods such as building slurry walls and clay caps to elimi- nate diffusion of buried waste into subsurface Well :~_ Disposal ~ ~ Pond Deep-Well Injection waters.

When one takes the cost of industrial com- pliance with RCRA to handle currently gener- ated wastes and adds the cost of Superfund to clean up the wastes of the past, it becomes obvious that there are strong incentives for technology development in the area of waste minimization and treatment, and many oppor- tunities for research and employment for chem . DESIGN OF INHERENTLY SAFER AND LESS POLLUTING PLANTS AND PROCESSES Few basic decisions affect hazard potential or have more of an impact on environment than the initial choice of technology.

Thus, when designing chemical manufacturing processes, it is important to select sequences of chemical reactions that avoid the use of hazardous feed- stocks and the generation of hazardous chemical intermediates.It includes significant costs owing to interruption ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIOA7, PROCESS SAFETY, HA718~US WASTES ~E:~-~ ~ FIGURE 7.3 In 1984, 14 years after the passage of the Clean Air Act, significant areas of the United States were still in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone. of business as well as major liability and liti- gation costs associated with injuries, deaths, property damage, and insurance premiums. industry spent .7 billion in 1985 for protecting worker safety and health;6 the total annual cost of accidents and unintended chemical releases by the U. chem- ical and petrochemical industries is surely many billions of dollars.It also includes losses of product and feedstock that are direct profit losses for the manufacturer. Costs associated with increased government regulation are also difficult to quantify. chemical industry is already spending large amounts of money to avoid accidents and to deal with their consequences when they occur; these costs are borne in part by the consumers.Good design should result in waste minimization in a manufacturing process or plant.Traditional analyses of process economics might show that inherently safer and less pol- luting plants are less efficient in terms of energy or raw materials usage.- ~` ~ 622-~__:i ~ ~ , ~-; 0 5'15-/ ~ ~ ~ Nt W? Of the total quantity of hazardous waste gen- erated, manufacturers account for 92 percent.

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