Gap dating

He was a political liberal who argued against sodomy laws and testified in the defense of homosexuals.The term "sexual inversion" was popularized in English with the publication of a book of the same title written by sexologist Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) and his homosexual collaborator John Addington Symonds (1840-1893).Through the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical courts were charged with trying cases of "sodomy" most commonly pursued when heretical or anti-church activity was also suspected.

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The medical literature on homosexuality that grew rapidly in the late 19th century was largely written by medico-legal experts concerned with determining whether certain people accused of criminal sexual behavior should be considered innocent because of a constitutional defect or mental illness.

Although such pathologization may seem stigmatizing, at the time it could also serve liberatory aims since it wrested the issue of sodomy from the police and courts.

However, the never criminalized homosexuality itself thanks to the influence of Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul who was a homosexual man.

Men arrested under suspicion of public sex were subjected to medical examinations to help determine if anal sex had taken place.

German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895) was perhaps the first activist for homosexual civil rights.

He argued against Germany's adoption of Prussian law criminalizing sodomy (Paragraph 175).In Europe and America the condemnation of male-male sodomy is based on Old Testament law that assigned the death penalty for a man who "lies with a male as with a woman" (Leviticus ).Theologians have debated what exactly these biblical passages refer to in the original Hebrew and Greek texts.Tardieu argued that penile and anal physical stigmata invariably betrayed inveterate sodomites.Furthermore, he suggested there were psychological and behavioral traits (such as effeminacy and cross-dressing), that betrayed a subset of exclusive sodomites who he believed suffered from a form of insanity.He hypothesized that there were competing male and female "germs" that determined male and female anatomy and psyche.

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