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(NB the same houses are shown in both photos) As a result a new sea wall has been built to protect the whole coast from wave attack; the beach has been replenished and the groynes replaced; the channel of West Brook has been stabilised, with sluice gates to control discharge and reduce tidal variations; and drainage and slope reduction measures have been put in place along the cliffs of Studd Hill.A substantial rock armour barrier ('rip-rap') has been added to protect the western side of Hampton Pier.

The pier was to be not only a means of unloading and transporting the oysters, but also protection for the oyster beds.

However, the new breakwater interrupted the longshore transport of shingle from the east, and the natural replenishment of the protecting beach was much reduced.

The oyster yield was below expectations, and the houses and their protecting walls were progressively washed away by a series of storms and floods, up to and including the Great North Sea Storm of February1953.

The bay itself was enlarged, and the access road along the top of the cliff at neighbouring Studd Hill disappeared, threatening the survival of the houses backing onto it.

The rivers also scour out shifting channels in the sea floor, particularly on the fast-ebbing tide, and the estuaries provide a corridor for the prevailing wind and weather from the west.

The North Sea, on the other hand, is a relatively shallow basin with strong anti-clockwise tidal movements, partially enclosed in the south, but particularly susceptible to winds and storm surges from the north and north-east.Twentieth century growth of car ownership and the growing popularity of watersports (particularly at Whitstable and Hampton) encouraged day trips and weekend excursions from east and south-east London, supplemented increasingly by retirement and second home development, as well as chalets and mobile homes on low-lying land at Swalecliffe.The front at Herne Bay in particular has recently undergone substantial modification to reduce the danger of flooding, focused on the building of a protecting 'mole' to the east of what remains of the Pier (severely damaged in 1979)., exposing the foot of the cliffs to highly destructive northerly winds and waves, and cutting them back some 20 ft.The replacemant wall was more substantial, and has protected the regraded cliffs and houses above, but note: the shingle beach is now overtopping the groynes and the wall ...This page presents the results of research on physical processes operating along the coast of Kent near Herne Bay, conducted over many years with former colleagues from Wilson's School, Wallington.

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