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Increases in contraceptive use account for about 75% of fertility decline in developing countries in the past six decades and have substantially reduced the proportion of pregnancies in women of high parity, which pose a greater-than-average risk to maternal survival In 2008, contraceptive use averted over 250,000 maternal deaths worldwide by reducing unintended pregnancies, which is equivalent to 40% of the 355,000 maternal deaths that occurred that year If all women in developing countries who want to avoid pregnancy use an effective contraceptive method, the number of maternal deaths would fall by a further 30% Because of its effect on births to women of high parity and on the need to resort to unsafe abortion, contraception also reduces the risk of maternal death per pregnancy; each 1% increase in contraceptive use reduces the maternal mortality ratio by 4·8 deaths per 100 000 live births In rich and poor countries the risks of prematurity and low birth weight are substantially raised by short intervals, and in developing countries, risk of death in infancy (ages Members of parliament meeting at the fifth International Parliamentarians Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) - held in Istanbul - agreed the economic crunch is no reason for governments to relax their commitment to women's reproductive rights and health, made 18 years ago.

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We are far from a world in which all births result from intended pregnancies.

Surveys show that approximately 40% of pregnancies are unintended in developing countries, and 47% in developed ones.

The conference aims at building on past commitments made in the first ICPD conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 1994.

The Programme of Action adopted nearly two decades ago set a target of reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015; which is also one of the most urgent targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

30% more maternal deaths could be avoided by meeting the unmet need for contraception.

The benefits of modern contraceptives to women's health, including non-contraceptive benefits of specific methods, outweigh the risks.

The world's population is expected to grow by 39% over the next 45 years and births in the 50 poorest nations are estimated to rise by 228%.

Education and improved health for women and access to contraception are vital.

It is not expensive to help all women to be in fully control of the timing and frequency of their childbearing.

The key obstacles are religious, cultural, and political opposition to contraception or the possibility of population decline.

Since 1994 more women have access to education and other rights, and more early-marriage traditions are being opposed.

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